Rocephin (Ceftriaxone) 1g I.V


UGX65,000

Rocephin is a sterile, semisynthetic, broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic for intravenous or intramuscular administration. Ceftriaxone sodium is (6R,7R)-7-[2-(2Amino-4-thiazolyl)glyoxylamido]-8-oxo-3-[[(1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-2-methyl-5,6-dioxo-astriazin-3-yl)thio]methyl]-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid, 72-(Z)(O-methyloxime), disodium salt, sesquaterhydrate.

The chemical formula of ceftriaxone sodium is C18H16N8Na2O7S3•3.5H2O. It has a calculated molecular weight of 661.59 and the following structural formula:

ROCEPHIN® (ceftriaxone sodium) Structural Formula Illustration

Rocephin is a white to yellowish-orange crystalline powder that is readily soluble in water, sparingly soluble in methanol and very slightly soluble in ethanol. The pH of a 1% aqueous solution is approximately 6.7. The color of Rocephin solutions ranges from light yellow to amber, depending on the length of storage, concentration, and diluent used.

Rocephin contains approximately 83 mg (3.6 mEq) of sodium per gram of ceftriaxone activity.

INDICATIONS

Before instituting treatment with Rocephin, appropriate specimens should be obtained for isolation of the causative organism and for determination of its susceptibility to the drug. Therapy may be instituted prior to obtaining results of susceptibility testing.

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Rocephin and other antibacterial drugs, Rocephin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Rocephin is indicated for the treatment of the following infections when caused by susceptible organisms:

LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus mirabilis or Serratia marcescens.

ACUTE BACTERIAL OTITIS MEDIA caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae (including beta-lactamase-producing strains) or Moraxella catarrhalis (including beta-lactamase-producing strains).

NOTE: In one study lower clinical cure rates were observed with a single dose of Rocephin compared to 10 days of oral therapy. In a second study, comparable cure rates were observed between single-dose Rocephin and the comparator. The potentially lower clinical cure rate of Rocephin should be balanced against the potential advantages of parenteral therapy (see Clinical Studies).

SKIN AND SKIN STRUCTURE INFECTIONS caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Viridans group streptococci, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii,* Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Bacteroides fragilis* or Peptostreptococcus species.

URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS (complicated and uncomplicated) caused by Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus Vulgaris, Morganella morganii or Klebsiella pneumonia.

UNCOMPLICATED GONORRHEA (cervical/urethral and rectal) caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, including both penicillinase-and nonpenicillinase-producing strains, and pharyngeal gonorrhea caused by nonpenicillinase-producing strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Rocephin, like other cephalosporins, has no activity against Chlamydia trachomatis. Therefore, when cephalosporins are used in the treatment of patients with pelvic inflammatory disease and Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the suspected pathogens, appropriate antichlamydial coverage should be added.

BACTERIAL SEPTICEMIA caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae or Klebsiella pneumoniae.

BONE AND JOINT INFECTIONS caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae or Enterobacter species.

INTRA-ABDOMINAL INFECTIONS caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium species (Note: most strains of Clostridium difficile are resistant) or Peptostreptococcus species.

MENINGITIS caused by Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis or Streptococcus pneumoniae. Rocephin has also been used successfully in a limited number of cases of meningitis and shunt infection caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis* and Escherichia coli.*

*Efficacy for this organism in this organ system was studied in fewer than ten infections.

SURGICAL PROPHYLAXIS: The preoperative administration of a single 1 gm dose of Rocephin may reduce the incidence of postoperative infections in patients undergoing surgical procedures classified as contaminated or potentially contaminated (eg, vaginal or abdominal hysterectomy or cholecystectomy for chronic calculous cholecystitis in high-risk patients, such as those over 70 years of age, with acute cholecystitis not requiring therapeutic antimicrobials, obstructive jaundice or common duct bile stones) and in surgical patients for whom infection at the operative site would present serious risk (eg, during coronary artery bypass surgery). Although Rocephin has been shown to have been as effective as cefazolin in the prevention of infection following coronary artery bypass surgery, no placebo-controlled trials have been conducted to evaluate any cephalosporin antibiotic in the prevention of infection following coronary artery bypass surgery.

When administered prior to surgical procedures for which it is indicated, a single 1 gm dose of Rocephin provides protection from most infections due to susceptible organisms throughout the course of the procedure.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Rocephin may be administered intravenously or intramuscularly.

Do not use diluents containing calcium, such as Ringer’s solution or Hartmann’s solution, to reconstitute Rocephin vials or to further dilute a reconstituted vial for IV administration because a precipitate can form. Precipitation of ceftriaxone-calcium can also occur when Rocephin is mixed with calcium-containing solutions in the same IV administration line. Rocephin must not be administered simultaneously with calcium-containing IV solutions, including continuous calcium-containing infusions such as parenteral nutrition via a Y-site. However, in patients other than neonates, Rocephin and calcium-containing solutions may be administered sequentially of one another if the infusion lines are thoroughly flushed between infusions with a compatible fluid (see WARNINGS).

There have been no reports of an interaction between ceftriaxone and oral calcium-containing products or interaction between intramuscular ceftriaxone and calcium-containing products (IV or oral).

Neonates

Hyperbilirubinemia neonates, especially premature, should not be treated with Rocephin. Rocephin is contraindicated in premature neonates (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Rocephin is contraindicated in neonates (≤ 28 days) if they require (or are expected to require) treatment with calcium-containing IV solutions, including continuous calcium-containing infusions such as parenteral nutrition because of the risk of precipitation of ceftriaxone-calcium (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Intravenous doses should be given over 60 minutes in neonates to reduce the risk of bilirubin encephalopathy.

Pediatric Patients

For the treatment of skin and skin structure infections, the recommended total daily dose is 50 to 75 mg/kg given once a day (or in equally divided doses twice a day). The total daily dose should not exceed 2 grams.

For the treatment of acute bacterial otitis media, a single intramuscular dose of 50 mg/kg (not to exceed 1 gram) is recommended (see INDICATIONS). For the treatment of serious miscellaneous infections other than meningitis, the recommended total daily dose is 50 to 75 mg/kg, given in divided doses every 12 hours. The total daily dose should not exceed 2 grams.

In the treatment of meningitis, it is recommended that the initial therapeutic dose be 100 mg/kg (not to exceed 4 grams). Thereafter, a total daily dose of 100 mg/kg/day (not to exceed 4 grams daily) is recommended. The daily dose may be administered once a day (or in equally divided doses every 12 hours). The usual duration of therapy is 7 to 14 days.

Adults

The usual adult daily dose is 1 to 2 grams given once a day (or in equally divided doses twice a day) depending on the type and severity of the infection. The total daily dose should not exceed 4 grams.

If Chlamydia trachomatis is a suspected pathogen, appropriate antichlamydial coverage should be added, because ceftriaxone sodium has no activity against this organism.

For the treatment of uncomplicated gonococcal infections, a single intramuscular dose of 250 mg is recommended.

For preoperative use (surgical prophylaxis), a single dose of 1 gram administered intravenously 1/2 to 2 hours before surgery is recommended.

Generally, Rocephin therapy should be continued for at least 2 days after the signs and symptoms of infection have disappeared. The usual duration of therapy is 4 to 14 days; in complicated infections, longer therapy may be required.

When treating infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, therapy should be continued for at least 10 days.

No dosage adjustment is necessary for patients with impairment of renal or hepatic function (see PRECAUTIONS).

The dosages recommended for adults require no modification in elderly patients, up to 2 gm per day, provided there is no severe renal and hepatic impairment (see PRECAUTIONS).

Directions For Use

Intramuscular Administration

Reconstitute Rocephin powder with the appropriate diluent (see Compatibility And Stability).

Inject diluent into the vial, shake vial thoroughly to form a solution. Withdraw entire contents of the vial into the syringe to equal total labeled dose.

After reconstitution, each 1 mL of solution contains approximately 250 mg or 350 mg equivalent of ceftriaxone according to the amount of diluent indicated below. If required, more dilute solutions could be utilized.

As with all intramuscular preparations, Rocephin should be injected well within the body of a relatively large muscle; aspiration helps to avoid unintentional injection into a blood vessel.

Vial Dosage Size Amount of Diluent to be Added
250 mg/mL 350 mg/mL
500 mg 1.8 mL 1.0 mL
1 gm 3.6 mL 2.1 mL

Intravenous Administration

Rocephin should be administered intravenously by infusion over a period of 30 minutes, except in neonates where administration over 60 minutes is recommended to reduce the risk of bilirubin encephalopathy. Concentrations between 10 mg/mL and 40 mg/mL are recommended; however, lower concentrations may be used if desired. Reconstitute vials with an appropriate IV diluent (see Compatibility And Stability).

Vial Dosage Size Amount of Diluent to be Added
500 mg 4.8 mL
1 gm 9.6 mL

After reconstitution, each 1 mL of solution contains approximately 100 mg equivalent of ceftriaxone. Withdraw entire contents and dilute to the desired concentration with the appropriate IV diluent.

Compatibility And Stability

Do not use diluents containing calcium, such as Ringer’s solution or Hartmann’s solution, to reconstitute Rocephin vials or to further dilute a reconstituted vial for IV administration. A particulate formation can result.

Ceftriaxone has been shown to be compatible with Flagyl® IV (metronidazole hydrochloride). The concentration should not exceed 5 to 7.5 mg/mL metronidazole hydrochloride with ceftriaxone 10 mg/mL as an admixture. The admixture is stable for 24 hours at room temperature only in 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose in water (D5W). No compatibility studies have been conducted with the Flagyl® IV RTU® (metronidazole) formulation or using other diluents. Metronidazole at concentrations greater than 8 mg/mL will precipitate. Do not refrigerate the admixture as precipitation will occur.

Vancomycin, amsacrine, aminoglycosides, and fluconazole are incompatible with ceftriaxone in admixtures. When any of these drugs are to be administered concomitantly with ceftriaxone by intermittent intravenous infusion, it is recommended that they are given sequentially, with thorough flushing of the intravenous lines (with one of the compatible fluids) between the administrations.

Rocephin solutions should not be physically mixed with or piggybacked into solutions containing other antimicrobial drugs or into diluent solutions other than those listed above, due to possible incompatibility (see WARNINGS).

The rocephin sterile powder should be stored at room temperature—77°F (25°C)—or below and protected from light. After reconstitution, protection from normal light is not necessary. The color of solutions ranges from light yellow to amber, depending on the length of storage, concentration, and diluent used.

Rocephin intramuscular solutions remain stable (loss of potency less than 10%) for the following time periods:

Storage
Diluent Concentration
mg/ml
Room Temp.
(25°C)
Refrigerated
(4°C)
Sterile Water for Injection 100 2 days 10 days
250, 350 24 hours 3 days
0.9% Sodium Chloride
Solution
100 2 days 10 days
250, 350 24 hours 3 days
5% Dextrose Solution 100 2 days 10 days
250, 350 24 hours 3 days
Bacteriostatic Water + 0.9%
Benzyl Alcohol
100 24 hours 10 days
250, 350 24 hours 3 days
1% Lidocaine Solution 100 24 hours 10 days
  (without epinephrine) 250, 350 24 hours 3 days

Rocephin intravenous solutions, at concentrations of 10, 20 and 40 mg/mL, remain stable (loss of potency less than 10%) for the following time periods stored in glass or PVC containers:

Storage
Diluent Room Temp.
(25°C)
Refrigerated
(4°C)
Sterile Water 2 days 10 days
0.9% Sodium Chloride Solution 2 days 10 days
5% Dextrose Solution 2 days 10 days
10% Dextrose Solution 2 days 10 days
5% Dextrose + 0.9% Sodium Chloride Solution* 2 days Incompatible
5% Dextrose + 0.45% Sodium Chloride Solution 2 days Incompatible
*Data available for 10 to 40 mg/mL concentrations in this diluent in PVC containers only.

The following intravenous Rocephin solutions are stable at room temperature (25°C) for 24 hours, at concentrations between 10 mg/mL and 40 mg/mL: Sodium Lactate (PVC container), 10% Invert Sugar (glass container), 5% Sodium Bicarbonate (glass container), Freamine III (glass container), Normosol-M in 5% Dextrose (glass and PVC containers), Ionosol-B in 5% Dextrose (glass container), 5% Mannitol (glass container), 10% Mannitol (glass container).

After the indicated stability time periods, unused portions of solutions should be discarded.

Note

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter before administration.

Rocephin reconstituted with 5% Dextrose or 0.9% Sodium Chloride solution at concentrations between 10 mg/mL and 40 mg/mL, and then stored in a frozen state (-20°C) in PVC or polyolefin containers remains stable for 26 weeks.

Frozen solutions of Rocephin should be thawed at room temperature before use. After thawing, unused portions should be discarded. DO NOT REFREEZE.

SIDE EFFECTS

Rocephin is generally well tolerated. In clinical trials, the following adverse reactions, which were considered to be related to Rocephin therapy or of uncertain etiology, were observed:

Local Reactions – pain, induration, and tenderness were 1% overall. Phlebitis was reported in <1% after IV administration. The incidence of warmth, tightness or induration was 17% (3/17) after IM administration of 350 mg/mL and 5% (1/20) after IM administration of 250 mg/mL.

General Disorders And Administration Site Conditions – injection site pain (0.6%).

Hypersensitivity – rash (1.7%). Less frequently reported (<1%) were pruritus, fever or chills.

Infections And Infestations – genital fungal infection (0.1%).

Hematologic – eosinophilia (6%), thrombocytosis (5.1%) and leukopenia (2.1%). Less frequently reported (<1%) were anemia, hemolytic anemia, neutropenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia and prolongation of the prothrombin time.

Blood And Lymphatic Disorders – granulocytopenia (0.9%), coagulopathy (0.4%).

Gastrointestinal – diarrhea/loose stools (2.7%). Less frequently reported (<1%) were nausea or vomiting, and dysgeusia. The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment (see WARNINGS).

Hepatic – elevations of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (3.1%) or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (3.3%). Less frequently reported (<1%) were elevations of alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin.

Renal – elevations of the BUN (1.2%). Less frequently reported (<1%) were elevations of creatinine and the presence of casts in the urine.

Central Nervous System – headache or dizziness were reported occasionally (<1%).

Genitourinary – moniliasis or vaginitis was reported occasionally (<1%).

Miscellaneous – diaphoresis, and flushing were reported occasionally (<1%).

Investigations – blood creatinine increased (0.6%).

Other rarely observed adverse reactions (<0.1%) include abdominal pain, agranulocytosis, allergic pneumonitis, anaphylaxis, basophilia, biliary lithiasis, bronchospasm, colitis, dyspepsia, epistaxis, flatulence, gallbladder sludge, glycosuria, hematuria, jaundice, leukocytosis, lymphocytosis, monocytosis, nephrolithiasis, palpitations, a decrease in the prothrombin time, renal precipitations, seizures, and serum sickness.

Postmarketing Experience

In addition to the adverse reactions reported during clinical trials, the following adverse experiences have been reported during clinical practice in patients treated with Rocephin. Data are generally insufficient to allow an estimate of incidence or to establish causation.

A small number of cases of fatal outcomes in which a crystalline material was observed in the lungs and kidneys at autopsy have been reported in neonates receiving Rocephin and calcium-containing fluids. In some of these cases, the same intravenous infusion line was used for both Rocephin and calcium-containing fluids and in some, a precipitate was observed in the intravenous infusion line. At least one fatality has been reported in a neonate in whom Rocephin and calcium-containing fluids were administered at different time points via different intravenous lines; no crystalline material was observed at autopsy in this neonate. There have been no similar reports in patients other than neonates.

Gastrointestinal – pancreatitis, stomatitis and glossitis.

Genitourinary – oliguria, ureteric obstruction, post-renal acute renal failure.

Dermatologic – exanthema, allergic dermatitis, urticaria, edema; acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) and isolated cases of severe cutaneous adverse reactions (erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome or Lyell’s syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis) have been reported.

Hematological Changes

Isolated cases of agranulocytosis (< 500/mm3) have been reported, most of them after 10 days of treatment and following total doses of 20 g or more.

Nervous System Disorders

convulsion

Other, Adverse Reactions

symptomatic precipitation of ceftriaxone calcium salt in the gallbladder, kernicterus, oliguria, and anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions.

Cephalosporin Class Adverse Reactions

In addition to the adverse reactions listed above which have been observed in patients treated with ceftriaxone, the following adverse reactions and altered laboratory test results have been reported for cephalosporin class antibiotics:

Adverse Reactions

Allergic reactions, drug fever, serum sickness-like reaction, renal dysfunction, toxic nephropathy, reversible hyperactivity, hypertonia, hepatic dysfunction including cholestasis, aplastic anemia, hemorrhage, and superinfection.

Altered Laboratory Tests

Positive direct Coombs’ test, false-positive test for urinary glucose, and elevated LDH (see PRECAUTIONS).

Several cephalosporins have been implicated in triggering seizures, particularly in patients with renal impairment when the dosage was not reduced (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). If seizures associated with drug therapy occur, the drug should be discontinued. Anticonvulsant therapy can be given if clinically indicated.

DRUG INTERACTIONS

Patients that are administered local anesthetics may be at increased risk of developing methemoglobinemia when concurrently exposed to the following oxidizing agents:

Class Examples
Nitrates/Nitrites Nitroglycerin, nitroprusside, nitric oxide, nitrous oxide
Local anesthetics Benzocaine, lidocaine, bupivacaine, mepivacaine, tetracaine, prilocaine, procaine, articaine
Antineoplastic agents cyclophosphamide, flutamide, rasburicase, isofamide, hydroxyurea
Antibiotics dapsone, sulfonamides, nitrofurantoin, para-aminosalicylic acid
Antimalarials chloroquine, primaquine
Anticonvulsants phenytoin, sodium valproate, phenobarbital
Other drugs acetaminophen, metoclopramide, sulfa drugs (i.e., sulfasalazine), quinine

WARNINGS

Hypersensitivity Reactions

Before therapy with Rocephin is instituted, careful inquiry should be made to determine whether the patient has had previous hypersensitivity reactions to cephalosporins, penicillins and other beta-lactam agents or other drugs. This product should be given cautiously to penicillin and other beta-lactam agent-sensitive patients. Antibacterial drugs should be administered with caution to any patient who has demonstrated some form of allergy, particularly to drugs. Serious acute hypersensitivity reactions may require the use of subcutaneous epinephrine and other emergency measures.

As with all beta-lactam antibacterial agents, serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity reactions (i.e., anaphylaxis) have been reported. In case of severe hypersensitivity reactions, treatment with ceftriaxone must be discontinued immediately and adequate emergency measures must be initiated.

Methemoglobinemia

Cases of methemoglobinemia have been reported in association with local anesthetic use (e.g. lidocaine). Although all patients are at risk for methemoglobinemia, patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, congenital or idiopathic methemoglobinemia, cardiac or pulmonary compromise, infants under 6 months of age, and concurrent exposure to oxidizing agents or their metabolites are more susceptible to developing clinical manifestations of the condition. If local anesthetics must be used in these patients, close monitoring for symptoms and signs of methemoglobinemia is recommended.

Signs and symptoms of methemoglobinemia may occur immediately or may be delayed some hours after exposure, and are characterized by cyanotic skin discoloration and abnormal coloration of the blood. Methemoglobin levels may continue to rise; therefore, immediate treatment is required to avert a more serious central nervous system and cardiovascular adverse effects, including seizures, coma, arrhythmias, and death. Discontinue Rocephin Kit and any other oxidizing agents. Depending on the severity of the symptoms, patients may respond to supportive care, i.e., oxygen therapy, hydration. More severe symptoms may require treatment with methylene blue, exchange transfusion, or hyperbaric oxygen.

Interaction With Calcium-Containing Products

Do not use diluents containing calcium, such as Ringer’s solution or Hartmann’s solution, to reconstitute Rocephin vials or to further dilute a reconstituted vial for IV administration because a precipitate can form. Precipitation of ceftriaxone-calcium can also occur when Rocephin is mixed with calcium-containing solutions in the same IV administration line. Rocephin must not be administered simultaneously with calcium-containing IV solutions, including continuous calcium-containing infusions such as parenteral nutrition via a Y-site. However, in patients other than neonates, Rocephin and calcium-containing solutions may be administered sequentially of one another if the infusion lines are thoroughly flushed between infusions with a compatible fluid. In vitro studies using adult and neonatal plasma from umbilical cord blood demonstrated that neonates have an increased risk of precipitation of ceftriaxone-calcium (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, CONTRAINDICATIONS, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Clostridium Difficile

Associated Diarrhea

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with the use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Rocephin, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

Hemolytic Anemia

Immune-Mediated hemolytic anemia has been observed in patients receiving cephalosporin class antibacterials including Rocephin. Severe cases of hemolytic anemia, including fatalities, have been reported during treatment in both adults and children. If a patient develops anemia while on ceftriaxone, the diagnosis of a cephalosporin associated anemia should be considered and ceftriaxone stopped until the etiology is determined.

PRECAUTIONS

Development Of Drug-Resistant Bacteria

Prescribing Rocephin in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria. Prolonged use of Rocephin may result in the overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms. Careful observation of the patient is essential. If superinfection occurs during therapy, appropriate measures should be taken.

Patients With Renal Or Hepatic Impairment

Ceftriaxone is excreted via both biliary and renal excretion (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). Therefore, patients with renal failure normally require no adjustment in dosage when usual doses of Rocephin are administered.

Dosage adjustments should not be necessary for patients with hepatic dysfunction; however, in patients with both hepatic dysfunction and significant renal disease, caution should be exercised and the Rocephin dosage should not exceed 2 gm daily.

Ceftriaxone is not removed by peritoneal-or hemodialysis. In patients undergoing dialysis, no additional supplementary dosing is required following the dialysis. In patients with both severe renal and hepatic dysfunction, close clinical monitoring for safety and efficacy is advised.

Effect On Prothrombin Time

Alterations in prothrombin times have occurred in patients treated with Rocephin. Monitor prothrombin time during Rocephin treatment in patients with impaired vitamin K synthesis or low vitamin K stores (eg, chronic hepatic disease and malnutrition). Vitamin K administration (10 mg weekly) may be necessary if the prothrombin time is prolonged before or during therapy.

Concomitant use of ceftriaxone with Vitamin K antagonists may increase the risk of bleeding. Coagulation parameters should be monitored frequently, and the dose of the anticoagulant adjusted accordingly, both during and after treatment with ceftriaxone (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).

Gallbladder Pseudolithiasis

Ceftriaxone-calcium precipitates in the gallbladder have been observed in patients receiving Rocephin. These precipitates appear on sonography as an echo without acoustical shadowing suggesting sludge or as an echo with acoustical shadowing which may be misinterpreted as gallstones. The probability of such precipitates appears to be greatest in pediatric patients. Patients may be asymptomatic or may develop symptoms of gallbladder disease. The condition appears to be reversible upon discontinuation of ceftriaxone sodium and institution of conservative management. Discontinue ceftriaxone sodium in patients who develop signs and symptoms suggestive of gallbladder disease and/or the sonographic findings described above.

Urolithiasis And Post-Renal Acute Renal Failure

Ceftriaxone-calcium precipitates in the urinary tract have been observed in patients receiving Rocephin and may be detected as sonographic abnormalities. The probability of such precipitates appears to be greatest in pediatric patients. Patients may be asymptomatic or may develop symptoms of urolithiasis, and ureteral obstruction and post-renal acute renal failure. The condition appears to be reversible upon discontinuation of ceftriaxone sodium and institution of appropriate management. Ensure adequate hydration in patients receiving Rocephin. Discontinue Rocephin in patients who develop signs and symptoms suggestive of urolithiasis, oliguria or renal failure and/or the sonographic findings described above.

Pancreatitis

Cases of pancreatitis, possibly secondary to biliary obstruction, have been reported in patients treated with Rocephin. Most patients presented with risk factors for biliary stasis and biliary sludge (preceding major therapy, severe illness, total parenteral nutrition). A cofactor role of Rocephin-related biliary precipitation cannot be ruled out.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility

Carcinogenesis

Considering the maximum duration of treatment and the class of the compound, carcinogenicity studies with ceftriaxone in animals have not been performed. The maximum duration of animal toxicity studies was 6 months.

Mutagenesis

Genetic toxicology tests included the Ames test, a micronucleus test and a test for chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes cultured in vitro with ceftriaxone. Ceftriaxone showed no potential for mutagenic activity in these studies.

Impairment Of Fertility

Ceftriaxone produced no impairment of fertility when given intravenously to rats at daily doses up to 586 mg/kg/day, approximately 20 times the recommended clinical dose of 2 gm/day.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects

Pregnancy Category B.

Reproductive studies have been performed in mice and rats at doses up to 20 times the usual human dose and have no evidence of embryotoxicity, fetotoxicity or teratogenicity. In primates, no embryotoxicity or teratogenicity was demonstrated at a dose approximately 3 times the human dose.

There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproductive studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Nonteratogenic Effects

In rats, in the Segment I (fertility and general reproduction) and Segment III (perinatal and postnatal) studies with intravenously administered ceftriaxone, no adverse effects were noted on various reproductive parameters during gestation and lactation, including postnatal growth, functional behavior and reproductive ability of the offspring, at doses of 586 mg/kg/day or less.

Nursing Mothers

Low concentrations of ceftriaxone are excreted in human milk. Caution should be exercised when Rocephin is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness of Rocephin in neonates, infants, and pediatric patients have been established for the dosages described in the DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section. In vitro studies have shown that ceftriaxone, like some other cephalosporins, can displace bilirubin from serum albumin. Rocephin should not be administered to hyperbilirubinemia neonates, especially premature (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Geriatric Use

Of the total number of subjects in clinical studies of Rocephin, 32% were 60 and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

The pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone were only minimally altered in geriatric patients compared to healthy adult subjects and dosage adjustments are not necessary for geriatric patients with ceftriaxone dosages up to 2 grams per day provided there is no severe renal and hepatic impairment. (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).

Influence On Diagnostic Tests

In patients treated with Rocephin, the Coombs’ test may become positive. Rocephin, like other antibacterial drugs, may result in positive test results for galactosemia.

Nonenzymatic methods for glucose determination in urine may give false-positive results. For this reason, urine-glucose determination during therapy with Rocephin should be done enzymatically.

The presence of ceftriaxone may falsely lower estimated blood glucose values obtained with some blood glucose monitoring systems. Please refer to instructions for use for each system. Alternative testing methods should be used if necessary.

Overdosage & Contraindications

OVERDOSE

In the case of overdosage, drug concentration would not be reduced by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. There is no specific antidote. Treatment of overdosage should be symptomatic.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Hypersensitivity

Rocephin is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to ceftriaxone, any of its excipients or to any other cephalosporin. Patients with previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillin and other beta-lactam antibacterial agents may be at greater risk of hypersensitivity to ceftriaxone (see WARNINGS – Hypersensitivity).

Neonates

Premature Neonates

Rocephin is contraindicated in premature neonates up to a postmenstrual age of 41 weeks (gestational age + chronological age).

Hyperbilirubinemia Neonates

Hyperbilirubinemia neonates should not be treated with Rocephin. Ceftriaxone can displace bilirubin from its binding to serum albumin, leading to a risk of bilirubin encephalopathy in these patients.

Neonates Requiring Calcium Containing IV Solutions

Rocephin is contraindicated in neonates (≤ 28 days) if they require (or are expected to require) treatment with calcium-containing IV solutions, including continuous calcium-containing infusions such as parenteral nutrition because of the risk of precipitation of ceftriaxone-calcium (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, WARNINGS, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Cases of fatal outcomes in which a crystalline material was observed in the lungs and kidneys at autopsy have been reported in neonates receiving Rocephin and calcium-containing fluids.

In some of these cases, the same intravenous infusion line was used for both Rocephin and calcium-containing fluids and in some, a precipitate was observed in the intravenous infusion line. There have been no similar reports in patients other than neonates.

Lidocaine

Intravenous administration of ceftriaxone solutions containing lidocaine is contraindicated. When lidocaine solution is used as a solvent with ceftriaxone for intramuscular injection, exclude all contraindications to lidocaine. Refer to the prescribing information of lidocaine.

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